Supercapacitors refers to a new type of energy storage device between traditional capacitors and rechargeable batteries. It not only has the characteristics of rapid charge and discharge of capacitors, but also has the energy storage characteristics of batteries.

The supercapacitor is a new type of component that stores energy through the interface double layer formed between the electrode and the electrolyte. When the electrode is in contact with the electrolyte, due to the Coulomb force, intermolecular force and interatomic force, the solid-liquid interface has a stable double charge with opposite signs, which is called the interface double layer. Think of the electric double layer supercapacitor as two inactive porous plates suspended in the electrolyte, and the voltage is applied to the two plates. The potential applied to the positive plate attracts negative ions in the electrolyte, and the negative plate attracts positive ions, thereby forming an electric double layer capacitor on the surface of the two electrodes. According to different electrode materials, electric double layer capacitors can be divided into carbon electrode double-layer supercapacitors, metal oxide electrode supercapacitors and organic polymer electrode supercapacitors.